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Amendment in the Nature of a Substitute

The process of proposing an Amendment in the Nature of a Substitute is used by either the House or the Senate to replace the entire text of a piece of legislation. There are three main instances where this is commonly used... Read More


A recess is a brief break in a legislative session. Recess does not indicate that business is complete; participants simply have a predetermined amount of time off before restarting the session. Congress takes several recesses throughout the session, primarily around federal holidays, but the August break is the only one that is legally required.... Read More

302(b) Allocation

Each year, the House and Senate Appropriations Committees receive an overall funding allocation for the coming federal fiscal year. The House and Senate Appropriations Committees then, respectively, decide on how to apportion the overall amount to each of their corresponding 12 subcommittees.... Read More

Overseas Contingency Operations

OCO funding is money set aside in the federal budget for expenses connected to overseas operations such as: crisis response, infrastructure and coalition support for operations in Iraq/Afghanistan, humanitarian assistance in the Middle East and North Africa, and embassy security among other needs abroad.... Read More